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By connecting additional modules as shown in Figure 2 the circuit may be elekgor almost in- In order to store digital information on a mag- netic tape or to transmit it over long-distance telephone lines, use is often made of a modu- lator which converts the digital signal into an FSK Frequency Shift Keyed signal.

Full text of “Elektor – Circuits”

If a particular lamp fails, the current falls, causing the relay to drop out and the LED to turn off. Alterna- tively, these accessories can be wired via the igni- tion switch so that this cannot occur. The value of R5 is dependent on the supply volt- age used and should be 33 ohms for voltages between 9 V and 15 V, 68 ohms for 15 V to 25 V and ohms for 25 V to 35 V. The circuit Is switched off by opening SI. The accompanying graph cirrcuits the response of the compressor using both silicon and germanium diodes, and it is obvious which are better!

Elektor – 301 Circuits

If a higher supply than 15 V is used then R4 and D2 must be included, otherwise the 1C may be damaged. In this circuit the trigger pulses are pro- vided by a timer connected as an astable multivibrator, but other trigger sources may be used depending on the application. The amplitude of the waveform can then be used to calibrate the Y amplifiers. The zener voltage can then be measured by connecting a multimeter across it as shown. Note that this only applies once the circuit has reached equilibrium.

However, the cur- rent flowing through the zener will be deter- mined by the value of the resistor and the differ- ence between the battery voltage and the zener voltage, and will obviously be less for high- voltage zeners than for low-voltage zeners. For a nor- mal sized fire a 4 A type should prove sufficient. For correct offset-compensation Ri and R 2 should have the same value. Figure 3 is an alarm circuit that is triggered when a circuit is broken, this is particularly useful in 2 69 Nl,N2-ft 4 burglar alarm systems where several switches can be connected in series.

When the thief cuts this wire to remove the equipment then the alarm will sound. The value of inductance thereby obtained h equal to the product of the values of R2, R3 and C2 i. Wirewound resistors are available with high power ratings, but unfortunately such resistors are rarely wound so as to minimise self- inductance. After rectifi- cation the signal can be measured on a voltmeter to ascertain at which setting of the IF trans- former coil the amplitude of the signal is greatest.

At a certain point, as the 55 iron heats up, the output from the temperature sensor will exceed the reference voltage causing the opamp output to swing negative, turning off XL R6 introduces hysteresis to avoid relay ‘chatter’. By pressing one or more switches in different combinations a total of seven different zener currents can be obtained. Since the resultant voltage is DC-isolated from the transformer, to which the other rectifier D If Vj is less than V 2 the output of IC2 will ramp positive.

The input signal is fed to a two- stage amplifier, each stage consisting of a pair of DC-coupled transistors. N1 and N2 are Schmitt triggers connected to form a monostab ie multivibrator with a period of about e,ektor ms.

When the receiver, which is hidden somewhere in the same room, picks up the ultrasonic signals from the transmitter an audio generator is activated. Although it is in fact available, the crystal 2. Patent protection may exist with respect to circuits, devices, components, etc, described in this book, The publishers do not accept responsi- bility for falling to identify such patent or other protection.

This noise re- duction occurs because the left -channel noise is largely in anti phase to the right-channel noise. The only musical accomplishment necessary is the ability to whistle in tune. Reprinted in India by Elektor Electronics Pvt. The finished circuit when moun- ted on a board occupies very little space.

This is sufficiently long for the indication to be seen.

The phase-shift is dependent on the relative values of R and C and on the input frequency. If the battery voltage rises above While most latching touch switches use a pair of NAND gates connected as a flip-flop, this circuit uses only one non-inverting CMOS buffer, one capacitor and a resistor. As soon as the button is released C3 will discharge rapidly through D2 and N5. Construction A printed circuit board and component layout for the calibrator are given in figure 3, This is very compact and can easily be mounted inside most oscilloscopes.

To this end C4 and R4 are included; these components enable the preset inputs of these counters briefly when power is first applied.

Since the non-inverting character of an integrator is of minor importance in many appli- cations the circuit shown in figure b offers a vi- able alternative to conventional arrangements.

The voltage drop across Cl thus increases lin- early, so the output voltage of Nl falls linearly until the lower threshold voltage of the Schmitt trigger is reached, when the output of the Schmitt trigger goes low. The output signal of the tuner is fed to the input of Al via sensitivity control PI and C3. C is related to the distance between the plates of the capacitor by the equation d where k is a constant. Automotive voltmeter Although vital for satisfactory operation of the vehicle, the car battery is often taken for granted and rarely receives adequate maintenance.

On the other hand, coal fires are difficult to light, slow in producing heat, and also extremely messy to dean out. The frequency range of the circuit is approximately Hz to 30 kHz.

However, up to ten AA cells may be charged if the circuit is duplicated the appropriate number of times.